Information systems are usually more to do with people than technology. Over the last century the task of management in organisations has been studied many academics. Their studies have been categorized under three main headings:-
Technical-Rational, Behavioural and Cognitive.
a. Outline the major aspects of each of these headings;
b. List the people involved in developing an information system.
Outline of Technical-Rational, Behavioural and Cognitive management theories. a. Outlines
The organization is perceived as a closed system in which the efficiency and effectiveness depend on the precision of operation, the creative design and integration of the individual parts. The managerial role is to plan, measure, control, organize, co-ordinate the parts such as machinery, operators, jobs and tasks so that they function as efficiently as possible. This perspective can have two variants, the scientific school which focuses on the factory floor and the administrative-bureaucratic which focuses on the office administration.
Appeared after the technical-rational perspective and considers people who work in an organization not being automata. It considers the role of small groups, their norms and working environment. Considers the organization as an open system and the efficiency and effectiveness depends on how the group continually adapts to its environment and its ability to rearrange itself internally so that it can ‗fit‘ the current environment in which it operates. Here again there are two variants, one which focuses on the psychological and social- psychological needs of the employees and the other focusing on the organization and its structure and its ability to adapt to the rapidly changing environment in which it operates.
This is concerned with the ability of an organization to ‗know‘ and ‗learn‘ from its own environment and from the environment in which it operates. The organization‘s efficiency and effectiveness depend on its ability to gather, create, store, classify, disseminate and use information and knowledge that it accumulates over time. The managerial role is to make sense of the latent information and knowledge available to them together with their own intuition and experience, to perceive problems and design solutions and to build an information and knowledge processing infrastructure for the organization.
B . People involved in the development of an information system: o User
o Systems analyst- to provide system requirements.
o Programmers- to code software.
o Project manager- He is in charge of the project.
o Senior organizational management- they approve and take part in reviewing the development effort.
o Experts in various fields to provide views needed in the feasibility study.
o Software and hardware maintenance vendors to provide maintenance and support (if it is not carried out the organization).