Advertising media

Business studies study module

These are channels or agents through which an advertisement message is conveyed to the target group. They includes both the print and electronic media which includes; newspapers, journals, magazines, posters, bill-boards, brochures’, radio, television, neon signs, etc


These are daily or regularly publications which contains advertisement. They includes, Daily nation, Standard, Taifa Leo, citizen, star, etc

Advantages of newspaper

  • The can reach areas that other means may not reach
  • Many people can afford them as they are relatively cheap
  • They cover a wider geographical area, leading to a wider market
  • The message on the news paper can last for a longer period of time, making it to reach more customers
  • The advertisement appearing in the newspaper is readily acceptable by the reader
  • Colored print makes the advertisement to be more attractive to the reader who in turn gets the information

Disadvantages of the newspaper

  • Many of them are written in English or Kiswahili, making them to only target those who can read and understand the language
  • It discriminate against the illiterate group who cannot read the information
  • They have short lifespan as they may be read only on the day it is circulated
  • It cannot be used to focus on a specific target as they are read by almost everybody
  • Some of the prospective customers are always in a hurry to read the newspaper and may not pay attention to the advertisement

Magazines and Journals

These are periodic publications meant to target a particular class or group of people. They may be published monthly, quarterly, annually, etc. The information reaches the targeted group as they read them

Advantages of magazines and Journals

  • The specific information for the targeted people can be published
  • They can be read and re-read before the next publication may the information to last longer and plead with the prospective customer
  • Their publication is of high quality and colourful, making them to draw the attention of their targeted group easier and passing the information to them
  • The quality material they are made of makes them to last longer and can be accessed even by those who may have not been around during their publication

Disadvantages of magazines and journals

  • If the time gap between the publication time and circulation time is wide, the advertisement may fail
  • They are a bit expensive which makes some of the potential customers not to afford them
  • The cost of advertising on them may be expensive for the organization
  • Their circulations may be limited to a small geographical region
  • The publications may not be available in the vernacular language to reach those who are not able to read either English or Kiswahili

Posters and Billboards

A form of advertising that may contain the information about the product either in words, pictures or both for the customer to see and read.

Advantages of posters and billboards

  • They are able to convey the information to the large audience, as they are placed in strategic position
  • Posters are cheap and easy to prepare
  • The use of different colors makes them to be more attractive and appealing to more audience
  • It can be used by both literate and illiterate group
  • The message may last for a longer period of time
  • Billboards are conspicuous and hence attractive to the audience

Disadvantages of posters and billboards

  • May be affected by adverse weather condition, especially rain
  • If not placed strategically, it may not reach the targeted group
  • Incase destroyed by the passersby, the information may not meet the targeted group
  • Bill boards are expensive to make and maintain
  1. Transit/transport advertising

A form of advertisement whereby vehicles such as trailers, matatus, buses, etc are used to carry and convey the advertisement message

Advantages of transit advertisement

  • The message reaches most of the people in the environment
  • They message last long as the paints always last on the vehicle
  • Transit vehicles may carry the message a long way to their final destination
  • It is captivating to the members of the public especially the promotion convoy, hence can easily reach the target

Disadvantages of transit advertisement

  • During the rush hour, the crowd may hinder some from getting the information
  • It mainly relay the information to those served by the vehicles
  • The noise produced by the promotion convoy may be a nuisance to some members of the public


These are small pamphlets carrying message and pictures about product being advertised.

Advantages of Brochures

  • They are easy to carry around as they are small in size
  • They are effective in meeting the targeted group
  • Their cost of production is not very high
  • They can be distributed at different places to meet the targeted group
  • Can be made attractive by the use of different colours
  • They have a long life and therefore can be used repeatedly
  • They can be used to direct others on where to get the product

Disadvantages of Brochures

  • The information may not reach the illiterate group
  • They may be ignored by the intended users
  • They may require frequent updating if many changes are made on the product making it expensive
  1. Radio

This is a channel that allows for the advertised messages to be conveyed through sound to the listeners, with some background music accompanying the message

Advantages of Radio

  • Different languages may be used to reach different people
  • It is accessible even to the remote areas that is not covered by other media
  • One can choose the time to advertise to reach the targeted group
  • Able to serve many people at the same time
  • It can be used for both literate and illiterate members of the group
  • The advertisement can be repeated over and over again according to the advertisers needs
  • The music accompaniment may attract many people to listen to the information
  • Can reach even the blind as they are able to hear
  • The message can be conveyed in different languages

Disadvantages of Radio

  • Their advertisement does not have any reference
  • It may be more expensive than the print media
  • Poor timing may make the message no to reach the targeted group
  • It may interrupt some programmes to the annoyance of the listener
  • It short and brief advertisement may be missed by the listeners
  • It is difficult for the listener to visualize the product
  1. Television (T.V) and Cinema

Television is a form of media advertisement where the written words are combined with motion pictures and sound to pass the information

Cinema is where the advertised messaged is conveyed during film shows in the cinema halls. It may be before or after the movie.

Advantages of Television (T.V) and Cinema

  • It appeals to most people as it is entertaining
  • It makes it possible for the demonstration of the use of the product
  • It is able to reach both the literate and illiterate viewers
  • The advertisement can be aired over and over again to meet the targeted group
  • The advertisement may be modified when need arise
  • It has wide appeal to many people
  • The message can be conveyed in different languages

Disadvantages of Television (T.V) and Cinema

  • The cost of advertising through this media is high
  • The television sets are expensive to acquire, hence many people may not have them
  • Their uses are limited to places with electricity
  • The advertisement may not last longer
  • The time for airing the information may not suit the targeted audience
  1. Neon Signs

This is a form of advertisement where the message is passed to the public through the use of electrical signals transmitted through neon lights. They are usually common in the banks, airlines, jewel shops, etc

Advantages of Neon Signs

  • The use of different colours makes them very attractive and catch attention of different people
  • They can be put strategically making them to be visible to many people
  • Can be used both at night and day
  • They direct the customer on where the goods are to be found

Disadvantages of Neon Signs

  • Can only be used where there is electricity
  • They are expensive to buy and maintain
  • The message may not easily reach the illiterate

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