Principles and Practices of Marketing
  1. Professionalism-this involves training sales people to the selling process.the steps to effective selling include;
  1. Prospecting and qualifying-the company will find the leads by examining data sources such as newspaper and directories,organizing trade shows,using telephone and mails.qualifying involves contacting the  leads to access their level of interest and financial capacity.
  2. Pre-approach/establishing needs-the sales person needs to learn as much as possible about the prospect company ie their needs,purchasing power,who is involved in purchase decision etc.
  3. Approach-the sales person should know how to greet the buyer,to get the relationship off to a good start.
  4. Presentation and demonstration-the sales person tells the product story using the AIDA formula that is getting attention,holding interest,getting them to desire and obtaining attention ie Attention, Intrested,Desire and Action.
  5. Overcoming objections-this involves dealing with any resistance towards the product or the could be as a result of preference for established supply sources,reluctance to give up something, pre-determined ideas and pleasant experiences with sales persons.this should be overcomed by;Maintaining a positive approach,Clarifying objections and Turning objections into a reason for buying.
  6. Closing –the sales person needs to know the right psychological moment  to close the  sale e.g. physical actions e.g. nodding in agreement,positive comments or asking questions.


  • Asking for an order.
  • Indicating what buyer will lose if they don’t order now.
  • Asking the buyer whether they want A orB or helping them make choices on colour or size.

g.Follow-up and maintenance-This is necessary to ensure customer satisfaction and repeat business(customer comes many times).it includes scheduling a follow up call to ensure proper installation,instructions are followed and servicing of the product.


Negotiating  skills are important in order to reach an agreement on price and other terms of sale.a sales person should win the order without hurting the profits of the company.


This involves building a long-term supplier customer relationship in order to ensure repeat is based on the promise that ,important customers need focused and continuous attention e.g. calling them,visiting them,taking them to dinner or lunch,making useful suggestions about their business equity bank offers calendars,pens success cards etc.


This involves a variety of programs designed to promote a companys image or its individual product.a public is any group or individual who has an actual or potential interest in a companys ability to achieve its customers,employees,shareholders, suppliers,government and financiers.

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