The govt. may adopt the following policies depending on their situation to reduce inflation to manageable levels. They include:
- Monetary policy
This is a deliberate move the govt. through the central bank to regulate and control the money supply in the economy which may lead to demand pull inflation. The policies include;
- Increase rate of interest of lending to the commercial banks. This forces them to increase the rate at which they are lending to their customers, to reduce the number of customers borrowing money, reducing the amount of money being added to the economy
- Selling of govt. securities in an open market operation (o.m.o). the selling of securities such as Bonds and Treasury bills mops money from the economy, reducing the amount of money being held individuals
- Increasing the commercial banks cash/liquidity ratio. This reduces their ability to lend and release more money into the economy, reducing their customers purchasing power
- Increasing the compulsory deposits the commercial banks with the central banks. This reduces their lending power to their customers, which makes their customers to receive only little amount from them, reducing the amount of money in the economy
- Putting in place the selective credit control measures. The central bank may instruct the commercial bank to only lend money to a given sector of the economy which needs it most, to reduce the amount of money reaching the economy
- Directives from the central banks to the commercial banks to increase their interest on the money being borrowed, to reduce their lending rates
- Request the central bank to the commercial banks (the moral persuasion) to exercise control on their lending rates to help them curb inflation.
- Fiscal policy
These are the measures taken the govt. to influence the level of demand in the economy through taxation process. They include;
- Reduced govt. spending. This reduces the amount of money reaching the consumers, which is likely to increase their purchasing powers, leading to inflation
- Increasing income taxes. This reduces the level of the consumers disposable income and lowering their spending levels, reducing the inflation
- Reducing taxes on production. This reduces the cost of production, lowering the prices of goods reaching the market
- Subsidizing the production. This reduces the cost of production in the economy, which in turn passes over the benefits to the consumers inform of reduced prices.
- Producing commodities that are in short supply. This increases their availability to meet their existing demand in the market, controlling demand pull inflation
- Statutory measures
These are laws made the govt. to help in controlling the inflation. They include;
- Controlling wages and salaries. This reduces the pressure put on the employers to meet high cost of labour for their production which in turn is just likely to lead to cost push inflation. It also minimizes the amount reaching the consumers as their income, to control their purchasing power and the level of demand, controlling the demand pull inflation
- Price controls. This reduces the manufactures ability to fix their prices beyond a given level which may cause inflation due to their desire to receive high profits.
- Restrictive imports. This reduces the chances of high prices of imported goods impacting on the prices of the goods in the country (imported inflation) and making the manufactures to look for alternative source of raw materials for their production
- Restricting the terms of hire purchase and credit terms of sales. This reduces the level of demand for those particular commodities in the economy which if not controlled may lead to demand pull inflation
- Controlling exports. This ensures that the goods available in the local market are adequate for their normal demand. Shortage of supply of goods in the market is likely to bring about the demand pull inflation