Market Report Terminologies have been explained as under:
1. AN ORGY OF SPECULATION:
It is a term denoting an unrestrained speculation about the prices.
It refers to the mixed rumours by the bulls and bears to achieve their objectives. They actually create an uncertainty that may result in sharp fluctuations in prices.
2. ARBITRAGE OPERATIONS:
It is an act of buying in a cheaper market of session of a market and selling in dearer market or another session of the market. Of course, the cost of Transportation, Insurance, and Labour etc. must be considered in doing this. The dealer must have a full knowledge of the situation otherwise he fails miserably.
A market usually opens transaction with stock in hand i.e, brought from the previous day of business. During the course of the business period, the day or week, fresh stocks are bought to the market. This is known as Arrivals. It refers only to fresh addition to the total supply of commodity in the market.
4. ATTRACTIVE LEVELS:
It is a situation of high price. Good business is expected to be transacted in his case.
5. BACK DOOR LISTING:
It is a process of listing a company that has failed to meet the original requirement of listing on stock exchange by acquiring a smaller listed company and merging into the acquisition.
6. BANKER’S CALL RATE:
It is the rate of interest changed by a bank on loan given on call and short notice.
The speculator who expects a fall in price is bear. He buys cheap at future date when the price comes down according to this expectations. He sells in high price situation. The difference in the two transactions gives him profit.
8. BEAR ACCOUNT:
It is the excess sale made by bear operators over the purchase made by bull operators.
9. BEAR COVERING:
A bear operator in a market usually operates under pessimistic feeling i.e, he expects a fall in prices. With such a frame of mind, sometimes his
10. BEAR HEELA:
It means temporary suspension of the market due to abnormal fall in prices and providing an opportunity for the speculators to settle their accounts.
11. BEAR RAID:
It is a situation in which speculator uses artificial means of creating rumor when he finds that his expectation and fall in prices are not coming true.
12. BEARISH ATMOSPHERE:
Is a market trend in which there is a pessimistic feeling. These are a general suspension of the market dealing due to abnormal rise in prices.
13. BLUE CHIPS:
They are the shares of the leading companies having reputation of excellent management and strong financial bade. Gilt edged securities are also branded as blue chips. They are also known as first class securities. They give the investor maximum safety and security.
14. BOTTOM PRICE:
This is the lowest price in an organized market which cannot further fluctuated downward.
15. BREAK EVEN:
It is a point where transaction terminates with neither profit nor loss.
It is a term used to mean sudden increases in value.
17. BULL CAMPAIGN:
A bull operator normally operates under optimistic feeling of rising prices. At times, a bull goes wrong in his forecast and the price does not rise to his expectation. In such a case, he tries to create a rumour in order to raise the price level. The bull tries to influence the movement of price in his favor. When the price rises temporarily he disposes off his product/stock. The use of artificial means to raise prices is known as bull campaign.
18. BULL LIQUIDATION:
It is a situation in which a speculator sells finding his expectation and rise in prices are not coming true.
19. BULL TRAPPED:
A bull is an operator in an organized market with an optimistic feeling of rise in prices. Sometimes the purchasers dodge him knowing that he is in over-bought position and suspend purchases to force him to sell at lower prices. In this situation the bull is trapped and faces loss consequently.
20. BULLISH FACTOR:
When a large amount of business is done by bulls, the market is said to be bullish and the tendency of rising prices due to bull operations is known as bullish factor.
21. BULLISH SPARK:
A bull operator generally buys forward with the object of reselling it at a certain profit before the date of delivery. Bullish Spark is a support of bull operators. Bull support means purchases made by the bulls. The effect of such a support is reflected in prices being moved up due to heavy pressure of demand.
22. CAP PRICE:
It is the highest price on which buyers are ready to purchase on a particular by demand, it is known as “Cheerful Start”.
23. CHEERFUL START:
It is a situation in market which opens with a rising trend on a particular day in an organized market.
24. CUM-DIVIDEND or CUM-DIV:
Cum-Div, is short for Cumulative Dividend. It is a term of Stock Exchange. When a security is quoted cum-dividend; it means that the price includes dividend, or interest accrued on it. The purchaser can, as such, claim dividend since its last payment.
25. DIVERGENT TREND:
It means an unsystematic rise and fall in prices on a market day.
26. DULL TONE:
A dull tone is actually the weak state of business conditions, i.e., there are fewer buyers than sellers, transactions are a few, and prices are receding.
In an age of industrialization and cut-throat competition, there may by different techniques to capture market. One known technique used in international market is dumping. Then a country sells her goods at lower price even below the cost of production, it is known as dumping.
28. EX. ALL:
It is a term to denote all right to dividend or interest attached to a security in favor of the seller and not the buyer.
29. EX- DIVIDEND:
When the price of a security is quoted Ex-Dividend, it implies that the buyer is not entitled to receive interest or income accrued on the security even of he had possessed it before such claim become due. The seller has the right to such a dividend and none else.
30. FORWARD BUSINESS:
When a business is transacted to receive or to given delivery at some future sate, it is known as forward business or future. It is an important feature of modern organized market. It is system of buying and selling commodities in advance. A future or forward business is known by the name of the month in which is to be completed.
31. FORWARD BUYING:
Contract to take delivery of goods in future is known as forward buying. The price in such a case is settled in advance. Neither the price is not paid nor is the goods delivered on the spot in this situation, e.g., January future.
32. FUTURE HARDENED:
When the price of a commodity in the forward section of market increases, it is called “future hardened”.
33. GAINED GROUND:
It is a terminology of the market report to show the condition of recovery. That is, prices regained after a dull period.
It is a market situation. It is said to exist when more goods are available than can be sold out at a reasonable price. Naturally, it forces price to come down.
35. HEAVY TRADING:
It refers to large volume of purchase and sale in an organized market.
It is a temporary suspension of the market dealing due to abnormal rise or fall in prices. There may be a “bullish hella” or a “bearish hella” to show the (either) situation.
37. LISTLESS CONDITIONS:
It is a situation of an organized market in which there is least of activity.
38. LONG CORNER:
When a bull has a full control over the supply in the organized market and sells at the highest possible price, he is said to have a long corner.
39. MAKE UP PRICE:
It is a price fixed by stock exchange securities that are to be carried over.
40. MIXED FEELING:
Is a tone of the market in which both the falling and rising tendencies appear at the same time.
41. MODERATELY ACTIVE MARKET:
Is a situation in which there is not so much of activity of buying and selling as is inspected.
It refers to total purchase of a certain commodity on a particular day in a produce exchange or bullion market.
43. PET OF THE MARKET:
There ate generally a number of sections in a market humming with activities. A particular section of market which dominates the business on a particular day and fetches good price for the commodity dealt therein is known as the “Pet of the Market”.
44. POOR TAKE:
It is a little amount of purchases in market (of course, organized market).
45. QUIET SPELL:
It is a terminology of the market report interpreting poor transaction or negligible business activity for the day reported for.
It means an absolutely negligible business was done on a particular day in an organized market.
46. RINGS AND POOLS:
“Rings and Pools” are organization of producers and dealers in a market. A “Ring” is formed by dealers to keep the supply of certain commodity restricted so that the price may rise and thus help in reaping huge profit. A “Pool” is formed by producers to eliminate competition by agreeing to divide output among them-selves.
47. SAGGING TEDENCY:
It simply means a falling tendency in prices.
Or is a situation in an organized market where prices are falling.
It is a term used in stock exchange refers to a security, debenture or share.
49. SHORT SALE:
When a bear makes heavy forward sale of the commodity which he does not posses for delivery, he tries to cover his sale by future purchase at a lower price. This is known as short sale.
It is a period of small business and falling tendency of price in an organized market.
51. SPECULATIVE ISSUES:
It is a term generally used in Stock Exchange. It denotes the shares whose prices have a tendency to rise and fall in the market.
It is a ready business. It is opposite of future delivery. Goods are actually delivered on the spot after the contract is made and the price is paid.
53. SPURTING MOVEMENT:
It is a sudden rise in price by a wide margin in an organized market.
54. SPURTS AND RALLIES:
Sometimes the prices in the market rise suddenly and by a wide margin. This is known as “Spurt and Rallies”.
55. SQUEEZED BEAR:
Where a bear is compelled to purchase from those who has to pay more in order to meet the commitment, he is said to be squeezed bear.
56. STALE BULL:
A bull usually buys a future in hope that the price would rise and he would be able to make a profit on the bargain. Such and expectation is not always true. When it so happens that the market condition goes against his expectation of rising price, the bull is compelled to sell at a loss. This is known as “Stale Bull”.
57. STEADY NOTE:
It is a tone in a market which signifies a comparative stability in price at higher level.
It is full paid share, debenture or bond reported on the stock exchange.
59. STREET PRICE:
The activities of buying and selling of securities generally continues outside the house (Stock Exchange) even after the fixed hours. The price at which the securities are thus bought and sold conveniently termed as “Street Price”.
60. TONE AND UNDER TONE:
Tone refers to the existing tendency of prices in the market. Undertone stands for the future tendency of prices.
61. TRADE DEMAND:
It is the demand of traders for money for their own requirement. This terminology is used in money market.
62. WALL STREET:
It refers to New York Stock Exchange located in Wall Street.
63. WIDE FRONT:
Stock Exchange has usually a wide front. It simply means shares of different companies.