These are qualifications or modifications to the rule in Salomon‟s case often referred to as “piercing the corporate shell.” The veil of incorporation may be lifted the courts or at common law and the legislature.
• Statutory or Parliamentary exceptions
Reduction of number of members
Non-publication or misdescription of the company‟s name
Investigation of company affairs
Investigation of company membership
Take over bids
• Judicial or Common Law exceptions
Agency or nominee or trustee
Ratification of corporate acts
Determination of residence
Determination of character
Fraud or improper conduct.