Examine any four weaknesses of a conventional file approach which database systems are meant to address.

CPA-Quantitative-Analysis-Section-4 BLOCK RELEASE

Weaknesses of a conventional file approach:
1. Data redundancy and confusion
Data redundancy is the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files. Data redundancy occurs when different divisions, functional areas and groups in an organization independently collect the same piece of information. Data redundancy results in high data storage costs.
2. Program-data dependence
This refers to the tight relationship between data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files. Every computer program has to describe the location and nature of data with which it works. In a conventional file environment, any change in data requires a change in all programs that access the data.
3. Lack of flexibility
A conventional file system can deliver routine scheduled reports after extensive programming efforts, but it cannot deliver adhoc reports or respond to unanticipated information requirements in a timely fashion. The information required by adhoc requests is somewhere in the system but too expensive to retrieve.
4. Poor security
Because there is little control or management of data, access to and dissemination of information may be out of control. Management may have no way of knowing who is accessing or even making changes to the organization‘s data.
5. Lack of data sharing and availability
The lack of control over access to data in the conventional file environment does not make it easy for people to obtain information. Because pieces of information in different files and different parts of the organization cannot be related to one another, it‘s virtually impossible for information to be shared or accessed in a timely manner.

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