Computer fraud and abuse techniques:
Some of the techniques are briefly discussed below:
|Cracking||Unauthorized access to and use of computer systems, usually means
of a personal computer and a telecommunications network. Crackers are hackers with malicious intentions.
|Data didling||Changing data before, during or, after it is entered into the system in
order to delete, alter, or add key system data.
|Data leakage||Unauthorized copying of company data such as computer files.|
|Denial of service attack||Attacker sends e-mail bombs (hundreds of messages per second) from randomly generated false addresses; Internet service provider’s e-
mail is overloaded and shout down.
|Eavesdropping||Listening to private voice or data transmissions, often using a wiretap.|
|E-mail forgery||Sending an e-mail message that looks as if it was sent some ones
|E-mail threats||Sending a threatening message to try and get recipient to do something
that would make it possible to defraud him
|Hacking||Unauthorised access to and use of computer systems, usually means of a personal computer and a telecommunications network.
Hackers do not intend to cause any damage.
|Using the internet to spread false or misleading information about
|Internet terrorism||Using the internet to disrupt electronic commerce and to destroy
company and individual communications.
|Logic time bomb||Program that lies idle until some specified circumstances or a particular
time triggers it. Once triggered, the bomb sabotages the system destroying programs, data, or both.
|Perpetrator gains access to the system pretending to be an
authorised user. Enjoys same privileges as the legitimate user
|Password cracking||Intruder penetrates a system’s defenses, steals the file containing valid
passwords, decrypts them, and then users them to gain access to system resources such as programs, files, and data.
|Piggybacking||Taping into a telecommunications line and latching on to a legitimate
user before he logs into the system
|Round-down||Computer rounds down all interest calculations to two decimal places. Remaining fraction of a percent; increments are placed in a
dummy account controlled perpetrator.
|Salami technique||Tiny slices of money are stolen over a period of time. (Expenses are increased a fraction of a percent; increments are placed in a
dummy account and later pocketed the perpetrator.)
|Scavenging||Gaining access to confidential information searching corporate records. Scavenging methods range from searching trashcans for printouts or carbon copies of confidential information to scanning
the contents of computer memory.
|Social engineering||Perpetrator tricks an employee into giving out the information needed
to get into a system.
|Software piracy||Copying computer software without the publisher’s permission|
|Spamming||E-mailing the same message to everyone on one or more Usenet news
groups or LISTSERV lists.
|Superzapping||Unauthorised use of special system programs to bypass regular system
controls and perform illegal acts.
|Trap door||Perpetrator enters the system using a back door that bypasses normal
system controls and perpetrates fraud.
|Trojan horse||Unauthorised computer instructions in an authorised and properly
|Virus||Segment of executable code that attaches itself to software, replicates itself, and spreads to other systems or files, Triggered a predefined event, a virus damages system resources or displays a
message on the monitor.
N.B. Student are required to briefly discuss any 10 of these points.