Measuring globalization

Economic globalization can be measured in different ways. These ways center on the four main economic flows that characterize globalization:

  • Goods and services, e.g. exports plus imports as a proportion of national income or per capita of population
  • Labor/people, e.g. net migration rates; inward or outward migration flows, weighted population
  • Capital, e.g. inward or outward direct investment as a proportion of national income or per head of population

Technology, e.g. international research & development flows; technological advances such as the telephone, motorcar, broadband)

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