National income

Business studies study module

This is the total income received the providers/owners of the factors of production in a given country over a given time period.

Terms used in national income

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This is the total monetary value of all goods and services produced in a country during a particular year. Such goods and services must have been produced within the country.
  • Net Domestic Product (NDP). This is the GDP less depreciation. Depreciation is the loss in value of the assets such as machines used in the production of goods and services.
  • Gross National Product (GNP). This measures the total monetary value of all the goods and services produced the people of a country regardless of whether they in or outside the country. It takes into account exports and imports. The difference between exports and imports is called net Factor Income from abroad. GNP therefore is the sum of GDP and net factor income from abroad.
  • Net National Product (NNP). This recognizes the loss in value of the capital used in the production of goods. Capital here refers to capital goods. NNP is the difference between GNP and the depreciation.
  • Per capita income. This is the average income per head per year in a given country. It is also the national income divided the population of the country.



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