QUALITY AND QUANTITY DETERMINATION
Introduction to concepts in quality management:
A. Defin 1 : Quality: ISO 8402 defines quality as the totality of features and characteristics of a product that bears on the ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. In this definition, features and characteristic of product ‘ implies the ability to identify what quality aspects can be measured, or controlled, or constitute an acceptable quality level (AQL) and ability to satisfy given needs relates to the value of the product or service to the customer including economic value as well as safety, reliability, maintainability and other relevant features.
Define 2 : Crosby defines quality as conformity to requirements not goodness. He also stresses that the definition of quality can never make any sense unless it is based on what the customer wants i.e. a product is a quality product only when it conforms to the customer’s requirements.
Defin 3: Juran defines quality as ‘fitness for use’. This definition implies quality of design, quality of conformance, availability and adequate field service. Garvin has identified five approaches to defining quality and eight dimensions of quality.
Five approaches of quality:
1) The transcendent approach: quality is absolute and universally recognisable.
2) The product-based approach: quality is precise and measurable variable.
3) The use-based approach: quality is defined in terms of fitness for use or how well the product fulfils its intended functions
4) The manufacturing-based approach: quality is conformance to specifications i.e. targets and tolerances determined by product designers.
5) The value-b ased approach: quality is defined in terms of cost and prices. Here, a quality product is one that provides performance at an acceptable price or conformance at an acceptable cost.
B. FATORS TO CONSINDER IN QUALITY DETERMINATION (Eight dimensions of quality):
1) Performance: The product’s operating characteristics
2) Reliability: The probability of a product surviving over a specified period of time under stated conditions of use.
3) Serviceability: the speed, accessibility and ease of repairing the item or having it repaired.
4) Conformanc e: The degree to which delivered products meet the pre determined standards.
5) Durability: Measures the projected use available from the product over its intended operating cycle before it deteriorates.
6) Features: ‘The bells and whistles’ or secondary characteristics which supplement the product the product’s basic functioning.
7) Aesthetics: personal judgements of how a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes or smells.
8) Perceived quality: Closely identified with the reputation of the producer. Like aesthetic, it is a personal evaluation.
Specification: A specification for an item has been defined as ‘a statement of the attributes of a product or service. It is basically a description of an item, its dimensions, analysis, performance or other relevant characteristics in sufficient detail to ensure that it will be suitable in all aspects for the purpose for which it is intended.
The value of specifications:
Specification will ensure that:
i. All commodities MUST be specified to satisfy their suitable for their intended purposes when put in place
ii. Materials is of a consistent quality at all times
iii. The inspection or testing is easy with specifications to be applied to goods purchased is notified in advance to the inspection section and to suppliers
iv. In respect of the purchase of the specified items, all suppliers will have the same date on which to base the quotations
Preparation of specifications:
i. Avoid over-specification: This may lead to goods becoming more expensive and also may be difficult to find a manufacturer willing to quote
ii. Avoid under-specification since this may lead to inferior goods and services
iii. In order to be practicable, pay attention to convenience in handling and storage
iv. If there is to be inspection after delivery, the specifications ought to state what tests are to be applied
v. If any special marking or packing is wanted, include the relevant instructions in the specifications.
PURPOSE OF SPECIFICATION
ii. Fitness of purpose
D FEATURES OF GOOD SPECIFICATION
iv. Performance based
vi. Not conflicting with standards
E. METHODS OF MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
1) The idea of performance specification is that a clear indication of the purpose, function, application and performance expected of the supplied material or service is communicated and the supplier is allowed or encouraged to provide an appropriate product. In this case, the detailed specifications is in the hands of the supplier where applicable, performance specifications are to be preferred in that they allow a wider competition and enable suppliers to suggest new or improved ways of meeting the requirements.
2) Conformance specifications apply in situations where the buying organisation lays down clear and unambiguous requirements that must be met (In this case the specification is of the product, not the application). This type of specification is necessary where for example items for incorporation in an assembly are required or where a certain chemical product is to be acquired for a production process. It has been said that specifications restrict innovation.
3) Use of brand or trade name: This will be applicable under the following circumstances:
Ø When manufacturing process is secrete or covered by a patent
Ø When manufacturing process of the vendor call a high degree of skill that cannot be exactly defined in a specification
Ø When only small quantities are bought so that the preparation of the specifications by the buyer is impracticable
4. By sample: The sample can be provided either by buyer or seller and is useful method of specification in relation to printing and some raw materials e.g. cloth. When sample specifications are used:
Ø The bulk must correspond with the sample in quality
Ø The buyer must have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the bulky with the sample
Ø The goods must be free from any defect making their quality unsatisfactory which a reasonable examination of the sample would not reveal.
5. Grades of products eg A,B,C, ………… OR 1st, 2nd , 3rd …………………..
6. Technical/Drawings/ illustration
F: FACTORS DETERMINING QUANTITY TO BUY
ii. Inventory policy
iii. Independent /Dependence demand
iv. Service level
v. Market conditions
vi. Production methods
G: METHODS OF DETERMINING QUANTITY TO BUY:
i. Economic order quantity (E.O.Q)
ii. Simple average
Quality control and quality management-ISO 9000, 2000, TQM:
Quality control: Is concerned with defect detection and correction. Inspection activities can be classified as quality control processes, along with other activities which involve monitoring to ensure that defectives or potential defectives are spotted. Quality control can also be defined as a process employed to ensure certain level of quality or service. It may include whatever actions a business deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of certain characteristics of a product or service. The basic goal of quality control is to ensure that the pro ducts, service or processes provided meet specific requirements and are dependable, satisfactory and fiscally sound.
Quality assurance: Differs from quality control and is defined as all those planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system and demonstrated as needed to provide adequate confidence that an entity will fulfil requirements for quality. Quality assurance can also be defined as a planned and systematic production processes that provide confidence in a product’s suitability for its intended purpose. It can also be defined as a set of activities intended to ensure that products and services satisfy customer’s requirements in a systematic and reliable fashion.
Two key principles characteristics of quality assurance entail:’ fit for purpose’’ (the product should be suitable for the intended purpose) and ‘’right first time’’ (mistakes should be eliminated). Quality assurance include regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products, components, services related to production, management production and inspection processes.
Quality assurance is concerned with defect prevention and has become synonymous with quality systems such as Kenya bureau of standards (KEBS), BS5750 and international counterpart ISO 9000. Quality assurance includes all activities connected with the
Factors determining quantity to buy
2. Inventory policy
3. Independent/dependent demand
4. Service level
5. Market conditions
6. Production method
Methods used in determining quantity to buy
1. Economic Order quantity (E.O.Q)
2. S imple average.