Principles and Practices of Marketing

This comprises of short term incentives designed to increase the purchasing behavior of consumer through a variety of rewards and are meant to increase sales.


  • To increase sales.
  • To introduce a new product.
  • To encourage sellers to re-stock the items or increase their stocks e.g. free refrigerators to stock soda/water.,brand shelf given to supermarkets free to stock a given product.
  • Encourage the consumers sales force to put in greater effort ie giving of bonuses and certificates.
  • To clear existing stock-this avoids carrying costs as well as sitting on money
  • To promote unsought products.
  • To remain competitive in the market

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