State briefly the principal exception to the rule.

Ultra vires or illegal acts.
• Special or qualified majorities Cotter V. National Union of Seamen.
• Infringement of individual membership rights Pender V. Lushington.
• Fraud on the minority:Prudential Assurance Co. Ltd V. Newman Industries Ltd.
• Oppression of minority: Section 211 of the companies act.
• Other exceptions: in the interest of JusticePavlidesv Jensen.

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