Strength of Materials notes KNEC Diploma


Strength of materials is a module unit that deals with materials and their application in structural engineering and tool room processes.


Stress and Strain

  • Determination of elastic constants

Shearing Forces and Bending Moments

  • Determination of shearing force and bending moment

Bending Stresses in Beams

  • Verification of pure bending theory
  • Cantilevers
  • Simply supported beams

Deflection of Beams

  • Determination of Young’s modulus
  • Cantilevers
  • Simply supported beams
  • Verification of the principles of super position of deflection in beams
  • Determination of fixing moments for loaded beams

Thin Cylinders and Shells

  • Determination of the circumferential and longitudinal strains and stresses in pressurized thin vessels


  • Statement of the simple theory of torsion of circular section bars.
  • Explanation of parameters in the simple theory of torsion equation
  • Derivation from first principle the relationship between strain and twist per length.
  • Using the equation to develop other equations
  • Application of the equations to solve problems in torsion
  • Strain Energy
  • Definition of strain energy
  • Derivation of expressions for strain energy from first principles of different loading conditions
  • Definition of resilience and proof resistance
  • Derivation of an expression for strain energy of a three dimensional principal stress system.
  • Definition of modules of resistance
  • Definition of a maximum instantaneous stress
  • Definition of maximum instantaneous extension
  • Derivation of an expression for strain energy due to instantaneous loading
  • Statement of Castigliano’s 1st theorem for deflection
  • Application of Castigliano theorem to derive expressions for deflection on various beam loading system


  • Definition of a spring
  • Identification of various types of springs
  • Derivation of stress expression of springs
  • Maximum shear stress for coiled springs
  • Sagging under axial load
  • Maximum bending stress for a close coiled spring sunder axial torque
  • Maximum bending stress for semi-elliptic spring under central load
  • Proof stress for semi-elliptic spring under central load
  • Max. bending stress for quarter-elliptic spring
  • Max. bending stress for plain spiral spring
  • Derivation of deflection of springs
  • Derivation of spring rate expression for various springs
  • Application of the expressions to solve spring problems
  • Derivation expressions for stiffness of springs
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