A CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) is a type of challenge-response test used in a wide variety of computing applications to determine that the user is really a human and not a computer posing as one. A CAPTCHA is sometimes described as a reverse Turing test because it is administered a machine and targeted to a layman, in contrast to the standard Turing test that is typically administered a human and targeted to a machine. The process involves one computer (such as a server for a retail Web site) asking a user to complete a simple test that the computer is able to generate and grade. Because other computers are unable to solve the CAPTCHA, any user entering a correct solution is presumed to be human. A common type of CAPTCHA requires that the user type the letters of a distorted image, sometimes the addition of an obscured sequence of letters or digits that appears on the screen. Examples of these are seen when registering for a new account with a merchant, web site or checking out from an online store.